RC helicopters are a little bit complicated and can only be flown by someone who has an experience in flying them. It is therefore important for a person to learn how to fly these remote controlled helicopters before their first attempt in order to experience the fun involved in flying them and also in order to avoid crashing. A starter for instance will have to master all the skills involved in flying the helicopter before they can start having fun in flying them and also competing or using them for other fun stuff.

The first way to get started in learning the tips involved in flying RC helicopters is going through its instruction manual. The remote controlled helicopters come with user guides, which have a flying guide which can be quite useful to the beginners in flying these kinds of helicopters. Besides, the user guide will also tell the beginner where all the parts of the helicopter are placed and they can therefore use the manual to learn more about the helicopter before they can start flying them. It is always important to know the various parts of the helicopter so as to troubleshoot the helicopter in case of a problem when using it.

When learning the working of the RC helicopters, the beginner needs to check out if all its parts are in place as per the user manual in order to avoid problems when flying them. In case of loose parts for instance, the helicopter may not fly well and the pilot may not have as much fun, which is why they need to fix all those loose parts before hand. In case of a major problem, an experienced pilot may be called upon to help. Always ensure that the helicopter is in good condition when you try to fly it.

After that, you can start teaching yourself to hover around. Do the hovering as many times as possible so as to master the skill as soon as you want. This is an important skill that needs to be learned first before other flying skills because it forms the basis of all the skills that you will need thereafter in flying the RC helicopters. Not until you are sure that you can hover around properly will you proceed to the more advanced flying skills, which will show that you are now an expert in flying these kinds of helicopters.

The advanced skills in flying RC helicopters will therefore come last. These are the skills that you need in order to be involved in competitions whether you are competing for fun or for a price. A beginner needs to be ready to crash several times because it will not be easy at all to fly these helicopters as a first time pilot. Due to such crashes, it will be wise to learn in a grassy place so as to avoid much damage to your RC helicopter in case of a heavy crash.

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Source: http://www.sooperarticles.com/hobbies-articles/collecting-articles/basic-tips-learning-how-fly-rc-helicopters-659399.html

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Dinosaur toys have a way of captivating children the minute they receive one! Nothing makes a child fall in love with a toy more than a Dinosaur toy set! By the time your child reaches his or her first birthday, he or she is in a perpetual motion and exploring the captivating world around them. Your toddler will always have a favorite toy but at this stage they are also fascinated by toys that move. Parents who have a flair for wildlife and science, might also choose to give their children toys that will teach them about the natural world and encourage a love for animals. The interests of a child's parents make quite a difference and play an important role in shaping up their baby's future likes and dislikes.

A perfect product for any child interested in nature or dinosaurs is the 'First Friends Dinosaur play set' which consists of a selection of dinosaur toys that encourage role playing and imagination. It also instills the important lesson of extinction and helps to develop his or her cognitive skills. This dinosaur set comprises of toys that are safe and fun childhood companions and they stimulate your child's interest in their never-ending voyage of discovery. These toys are adored by children and the central mountain in the set comes in four parts which can be put together like a puzzle or dismantled and played separately. Once you put them together, lo and behold! A mountain and a tunnel are set before you. This set also has an extra rocky cap by which you can join the two different parts of the mountain by placing the rocky cap on top of it.

There are also many toy vehicles available within this range and they are all designed to fit through the tunnel of the Dinosaur set. This imaginative and highly decorative toy set has been designed by experts to give your children the maximum developmental value through fun. The squeaky characters and animals come in different colors and the electronic vehicles, the mountain, trees, the characters, animals and dinosaurs are simply out-of-this-world! To enhance the fun quotient, this Dinosaur toy set also has a slide and two caves which stimulate your child's imagination and carry them to a magical fun-world.

All in all, dinosaur toys open a big and beautiful creative world for your child as this set specifically has all the elements of nature like trees, flowers, different colored dinosaurs, a mountain, tunnel, slides and even a cave boy! It develops your little one's role playing skills and this package of amazing toys will no doubt spark your child's interest in knowing about a magic world waiting outside for them!

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Source: http://www.sooperarticles.com/shopping-articles/toys-articles/dinosaur-toys-opening-fascinating-world-your-children-1058295.html

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What exactly is a Bergey Home Wind Turbine Kit?

The Bergey XL.1 is a wind turbine kit that produces approximately 1,000 Watts, or 1 kW of power. It is a “direct drive” system and therefore does not require a gearbox to create power. 1 kW is a lot of power for a home but it is still unlikely that any home wind turbine kit will eliminate your power bills.

The Bergey kit system is a horizontal axis wind turbine. That means it looks like the classic Dutch windmill that we are all familiar with – 3 blades turning perpendicular to the earth's surface.

How much does the kit cost?

The kits themselves cost from 00, for a 1.4 kW model, to ,900 for a 4.0 kW unit. All come with the components necessary to install the unit and generate electricity – that being said, you will likely need help with the foundation and making the final tie-in to the grid.

There are several cost elements if you want to do this right:

Purchase of the kitInstallation on your roof or installation of the tower on a foundationConnection to your home or battery unit. At present there is a 30% Wind Tax Credit going on now, too. And, that's on the TOTAL cost of the installed wind turbine system…very powerful incentive that may slip away if you don't act quickly.

How difficult is the kit to put together and install?

The word “kit” is a bit misleading in that it implies putting one together is easy. It's not as easy as putting together a model airplane but it is very rewarding when you see the blades turning and you're your power bills decreasing once it is done.

Since you may or may not have assembled such a kit before, you are going to have to try to be patient with the inevitable learning curve. It takes some time even with a kit to get things up and running. Installing your own kit is very doable for the average person though, you just need to go into it with eyes wide open so you don't get half way through and “come back to it when I have more time.”

What are the pitfalls?

The biggest mistakes people often make are assuming they don't need outside help to complete the installation. It is wise to use professionals to do the final tie in and make sure everything is set up right.

This is too big an expense to do it almost right.

Just plan on putting the kit itself together by yourself and then plan on having others, like a mechanical and an electrical contractor, do the installation of the home wind turbine on your house and tie into the electrical system.

What distinguishes this product from its competitors?

The look of the Bergey systems are very clean and aesthetically pleasing.

The Bergey systems are direct drive and therefore a good bit cheaper than many other kits out there with gearboxes.

Installation is very similar though to others out there in the market as seen in the video above.

What are the alternatives?

There are a number of competitors out there for both composite material home wind turbine kit products as well as kits made out of traditionally cheaper material, like wood.

Keep in mind that at the end of the day, you are going have to be looking at this thing a lot, so it is important that you choose a kit that doesn't cause you to pause.

If you live in a neighborhood, local covenants will drive whether you can have a wind turbine on your house. Many neighborhood associations will not even allow wind turbines to be mounted on roofs or anywhere else on your property.

If you live way out in the country though, you don't have to consult anyone – just put your wind turbine wherever you want it and start saving money.

The Bergey home wind turbine kit though is a very reliable product and you will not go wrong choosing it.

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Source: http://www.sooperarticles.com/home-improvement-articles/tools-equipment-articles/bergey-home-windmill-kit-review-768668.html

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In fact, the history of aviation and flight always fascinated humanity since the tale of Icarus and Daedalus. Today, flying is no more something extraordinary and available for everyone who pays the required money. Whether it is helicopters, jumbo-jets, private jets, private jet hire or fighter jets humanity dreamt of flying and indeed realized it nowadays. However, we often forget that the first steps were not easy – especially in the domain of ballooning. The history of ballooning, both with hot air and gas, now spans many centuries. Indeed, this fascinating technical achievement and its visionaries were already in play before Christ. However, until the challenge was completed, the history of ballooning know many firsts, including the first misfortunes, the first human flights, first flights to North America and over the English Channel, and, of course, the first major aircraft disasters.

Pre-Modern and Unmanned Balloon-Flights in Ancient China

Already 220 – 280 AD hot air balloons were a popular topic in ancient China. Several Chinese kings and famous warlords used airborne lanterns for military signaling for instance. Such lanterns were later known as the Kongming lanterns.

Ballooning in Europe came much later into play. In fact, the first balloon was let gone in 1709 in Lisbon, Portugal. A man called Bartolomeu de Gusmao managed to lift a small balloon made of paper full of hot air about four meters. The Portuguese king as well as the Portuguese court were witnesses and great respect followed Bartolomeu over the next years. This even is, according to old documents, the first and earliest recorded model balloon flight known until that time.

The next Attempts: First hydrogen Balloons

In 1766 the world-famous Henry Cavendish published his pioneering essay on hydrogen. Based on this, the Professor Jacques Charles who has studies Cavendish's work for years, conceived the idea that hydrogen would be a suitable lifting agent for balloons and consequently Charles used this notion for designing and constructing the first hydrogen balloon. The Robert brothers, who worked closely with Charles, invented the methodology which was the construction of the lightweight-principle everybody knows today: airtight gas bags. How did they do it? In fact the principle was quite facile. They dissolved rubber in a solution of turpentine and varnished the sheets of silk that were stitched together to make the main envelope. Indeed, this led to another characteristic even children associate with ballooning nowadays: the red and white coloration as the Brothers used alternate strips of red and white silk which left a red and yellow result due to the varnishing and rubberizing processes.

On August 27 in 1783 Charles and the Robert brothers launched the world's first balloon filled with hydrogen (in fact they launched from the Champ the Mars, an area on which later the Eiffel Tower was constructed). The famous Benjamin Franklin was witness to this beside a huge crowd that enjoyed the spectacle.

How did the balloon work? In comparison to modern balloons this one was relatively small. It was 35 cubric metre sphere of rubberized silk and only capable of lifting about 9kg. However, it was filled with hydrogen which was gained by pouring almost a quarter of a tone of sulphuric acid onto half a tone of scrap iron. The hydrogen gas was fed into the envelope through lead pipes. One of the “child-problems” however was, that it had not yet a cooling system. Therefore, the gas got quite hot when it was produced but contracted drastically when it cooled down.

The balloon was able to fly 45 minutes long in which it passed distance worth of 4 kilometers.

The First unmanned Flight in the History of Ballooning

A sheep, a duck and a rooster were the first living “persons” that enjoyed the pleasure of being in a balloon high up in the air. The world-famous Montgolfier Brothers launched their balloon Aerostat Reveillon on 19th of September 1783, including those animals. King Louis the 16th and his wife Queen Marie Antoinette were witnesses to this spectacle. The Montgolfier brothers were clever and applied the principles of scientific methodology: The sheep was believed to have a reasonable approximation of human physiology. The duck was expected to be unharmed by being lifted aloft. It was included as a control for effects created by the aircraft rather than the altitude. And the rooster was included as a further control as it was a bird that did not fly at high altitudes.

In summary this balloon flew for eight minutes, three kilometers long and reached an altitude of 460 meters. It landed safely and the animals were not hurt.

First Attempts to Fly with Humans

France is also the birthplace of the first manned flight in a balloon. Again the Brothers Montgolfier were pioneers in that respect that they were the first to carry passengers using hot air to generate buoyancy. How did they know what buoyancy is and how to use it? The answer for the Brothers was quite simple: they had observed ash rising in paper fires (the Montgolfier family traditionally was a family of paper manufacturers). After having demonstrated that the technique works and that they were able to transport animals in a balloon over a distance of several kilometers and at an altitude of several hundred meters they now aimed at doing the same with humans. And in fact they managed to do so. The first free flight with human passengers was on 21 November 1783. Monsieur Rozer along with Marquis Francois d'Arlandes were the first passengers, entering the hot air balloons (King Louis the 16th originally wanted to use condemned criminals for the project but was eventually convinced not to do that). The first hot air balloons were essentially cloth bags with a smoky fire built on a grill attached to the bottom. Therefore it is not surprising that they were susceptible to catching fire, often upon landing. However, this did not occur very often. Such pioneering work of the Montgolfier Brothers that had managed to invent a hot air balloon that could carry both animals and human beings successfully eventually found its major recognition by this type of balloon being named Montgolfere after them.

First Manned Flight in a Hydrogen Balloon

Just shortly after this spectacle Jacques Charles and the Robert Brothers managed to launch a new manned hydrogen balloon in Paris. The crowd yelled of excitement. Jacques Charles was pilot of the hydrogen-filled balloon. The envelope in this case was fitted with a hydrogen release valve and was covered with a net from which the basket was suspended – quite similar to those balloons we have nowadays. They also had sand ballast to control the altitude – another milestone in the history of ballooning. In total the balloon managed to reach the altitude of 550 meters and flew for more than 2 hours long, covering 36 kilometers. In another try the same balloon ascended to about 3000 meters – a new world record.

New Inventions New Challenges

Such new extraordinary inventions also led to new challenges. It was again in France when Jean-Pierre Blanchard saw it as his next great challenge to fly across the English Chanel – he managed to do on January 7, 1785.

However, that was also the time when the first major aircraft disaster occurred. In May 1785 a balloon crashed down in Tullamore, Ireland and seriously damaged the village. More than a 100 houses caught fire and burned down, making the town home to the world's first aviation disaster.

In the following years Blanchard searched for new challenges and found it in his try to fly a balloon in the United States. On January 10, 1793 Blanchard entered his hydrogen balloon in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He reached about 1,770 meters and landed in Gloucester County, New Jersey. President George Washington was among the guests observing the spectacle.

Between the 1790s and 1960s gas balloons became the most common types of balloons used. The first balloon driven by a steam engine (it was very slow but effective) was flown by Henri Giffard in 1852. Paul Haenlein flew the first internal combustion motor-powered balloon in 1872. And Alberto Santos Duman was the first to fly in an untethered airship powered by an internal combustion engine in 1898.

Ballooning in the 20th century

During the Second World War balloons were especially used as shields in London against the attacks of the German Luftwaffe. They had the task to obstruct any incoming fighter plane. Although their effectiveness was debatable, they were a cheap protection.

Hydrogen balloons were used particularly in upper atmosphere research projects during the first half of the 20th century. Thus they more and more were used to execute research projects in the air. However, they more and more lost their prestige as new planes and jets, companies were invented and became products of mass production and jet charter companies became reachable for people. Some people were still into ballooning and sought further pioneering challenges such as the first balloon to cross the Atlantic Ocean or the first to circumnavigate the world. Both were successfully done around the 1950s.

Balloning in Modern Times

Modern hot air balloons with an onboard heat source were pioneered by Ed Yost in the second half of the 20th century. The first successful flight was on October 22 1960. However, high-altitude balloons working with hot air are nowadays primarily used for recreation. They more and more lose their attraction and are today more the work of adventurers or researchers.

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Source: http://www.sooperarticles.com/travel-articles/charter-jets-articles/hot-air-ballooning-modern-jet-charter-1114137.html

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Radio controlled helicopters (also RC helicopters) are model aircraft which are distinct from RC airplanes because of the differences in construction, aerodynamics, and flight training. Several basic designs of RC helicopters exist, of which some (such as those with collective pitch, meaning blades which rotate on their longitudinal axis to vary or reverse lift) are more maneuverable than others. The more maneuverable designs are often harder to fly, but benefit from greater aerobatic capabilities. Flight controls allow pilots to control the collective and throttle (usually linked together), the cyclic controls (pitch and roll), and the tail rotor (yaw). Controlling these in unison enables the helicopter to perform most of the same maneuvres as full sized helicopters, such as hovering and backwards flight, and many that full sized helicopters cannot.

The various helicopter controls are effected by means of small servo motors, commonly known as servos. A piezoelectric gyroscope is typically used on the tail rotor (yaw) control to counter wind and torque reaction induced tail movement. This gyro does not itself apply a mechanical force, but electronically adjusts the control signal to the tail rotor servo. The engines typically used to be methanol powered two stroke motors, but electric brushless motors combined with a high performance lithium polymer battery (or lipo) are now more common and provide improved efficiency, performance and lifespan compared to brushed motors, while decreasing prices bring them within reach of hobbyists. Gasoline and jet turbine engines are also used.

Common power sources are nitro (nitromethane methanol internal combustion), electric batteries, gas turbines, petrol and gasoline. Mechanical layouts include cyclic/collective pitch mixing (CCPM) in all power sources, fixed pitch electric rotors and coaxial electric rotors. Practical electric helicopters are a recent development but have rapidly developed and become more common, overtaking nitro helicopters in common use. Gas turbine helicopters are also increasing in popularity, although the high cost puts them out of reach of most people.

Nitro or glow fuel helicopters come in different sizes: 15, 30, 50, 60 and 90 size. These numbers originated from the size of engine used in the different models (0.30 cu in, 0.50 cu in and so on). The bigger and more powerful the engine, the larger the main rotor blade that it can turn and hence the bigger the aircraft overall. Typical flight times for nitro helicopters is 7-14 minutes depending on the engine size and tuning. The maximum height of operation for RC helicopters, be it nitro or electric, is only limited to the height at which the controller can see the model. Most radio systems have a range of over a mile, and the person controlling the model will have long lost sight of the model.

Two small electric helicopters emerged in the mid 1990s. These were the Kalt Whisper and the Kyosho EP Concept, flying on 7/8 1200 mah NiCad batteries with brushed motors. However, the 540 brushed sized motors were on the limit of current draw, often 20-25 amps on the 'hotter' motors, hence brush and commutator problems were common. S107 metal series Recent advancements in battery technology are making electric flying more feasible in terms of flying time. Lithium polymer (LiPo) batteries are able to provide the high current required for high performance aerobatics while still remaining very light. Typical flight times are 4-12 minutes depending on the flying style and battery capacity.

Small fixed pitch helicopters need a 4-channel radio (throttle, elevator, aileron, rudder), although micro helicopters that utilize a 2-channel infrared control system also exist; while collective pitch models need a minimum of 5 channels with 6 being most common (throttle, collective pitch, elevator, aileron, rudder and gyro gain). Because of the normal interaction of the various control mechanisms, advanced radios include adjustable mixing functions, such as throttle/collective and throttle/rudder. RC Helicopters usually have at least four controls: Roll Cyclic Pitch, Elevator (Fore Aft Cyclic Pitch), Rudder (Yaw) and Pitch/Throttle (Collective Pitch/Power).

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Source: http://www.sooperarticles.com/technology-articles/gadgets-gizmos-articles/radio-controlled-helicopters-952608.html

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Helicopter design pioneers like Arthur Young and Stanley Hiller always long ago that helicopters are often used as a vehicle to transport workers in the future. However, a small and simple private aircraft is even more important, helicopters, which are not only profitable but also require a lower operational cost. A small propeller airplane is more popular than a small helicopter with complicated control mechanisms. Helicopters are not only expensive, but higher costs and insurance.

Stanley Hiller helicopters, the biggest advocate of personal helicopters built a prototype private helicopter with coaxial rotor, and has also contributed to more conventional helicopters to reduce costs for citizens. Another aviation pioneer, Frank Robinson, the most popular passenger Robinson R22 helicopter. R22 is a simple design in the same cabin of the exhaust pipe of the conventional screw tail, and works in or 124 hp Lycoming “320 engine in both lobes. While the R22 has a higher average number of accidents, but it was approved by the Federal Aviation Safety Administration. Used for light work tools such as cattle, traffic monitoring, agricultural spraying and police surveillance. However, R44, R22 is an improved version of a bigger engine and more reliable than the basic model.

Tourism as an aircraft, some helicopters are built from kits, which a person can buy a mounting kit and the party itself, which dramatically lowers the cost of the helicopters. The helicopter is a popular amateur-built in the U.S. has sold giroc

About the Author:
Our Florida Sport Pilot Flight Center was created to lead the Sport Pilot industry in safety and Florida flight training. We are dedicated to flight training and providing an environment to make your training experience fun, while also providing the safest and best maintained aircraft in Central Florida.

Source: http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/Aerotrek–One-Of-The-Best-Light-Sport-Aircraft-Around/2508891

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Drone is also called unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an unpiloted aircraft. UAVs come in two varieties: some are controlled from a remote location, and others fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans using more complex dynamic automation systems. Currently, UAVs perform reconnaissance as well as attack missions. They are also used in a small but growing number of civil applications, such as firefighting. UAVs are often preferred for missions that are too “dull, dirty, or dangerous” for manned aircraft.


A MQ-9 Reaper, a hunter-killer surveillance UAV used by the United States Armed Forces and British Armed Forces, especially in Iraq and Afghanistan.RQ-4 Global Hawk, a high-altitude reconnaissance Drone capable of 36 hours continuous flight time

The earliest UAV was A. M. Low's “Aerial Target” of 1916. A number of remote-controlled airplane advances followed, including the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane, during and after World War I, including the first scale RPV (Remote Piloted Vehicle), developed by the film star and model airplane enthusiast Reginald Denny in 1935.More were made in the technology rush during the Second World War; these were used both to train antiaircraft gunners and to fly attack missions. Jet engines were applied after WW2, in such types as the Teledyne Ryan Firebee I of 1951, while companies like Beechcraft also got in the game with their Model 1001 for the United States Navy in 1955. Nevertheless, they were little more than remote-controlled airplanes until the Vietnam Era.

With the maturing and miniaturization of applicable technologies as seen in the 1980s and 1990s, interest in UAVs grew within the higher echelons of the US military. UAVs were seen to offer the possibility of cheaper, more capable fighting machines that can be used without risk to aircrews. Initial generations were primarily surveillance aircraft, but some were fitted with weaponry (such as the MQ-1 Predator, which utilized AGM-114 Hellfire air-to-ground missiles). An armed UAV is known as an unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV).

The near future will likely see unmanned aircraft employed, offensively, for bombing and ground attack. As a tool for search and rescue, UAVs can help find humans lost in the wilderness, trapped in collapsed buildings, or adrift at sea. While air-to-air combat will likely remain the last domain of the human pilot, when unmanned fighter jets do come about, they will enjoy the advantage of almost unlimited immunity to G-force effects.

In the future, UAVs will be able to take full advantage of scramjet technology.. Today's scramjets, while unmanned, see use only for testing purposes (e.g.., NASA X-43A, NASA's Hyper-X scramjet program), but have the potential when developed for combat to out-maneuver even the most experienced pilots.

U.S. military UAV classifications

The modern concept of U.S. military UAVs is to have the various aircraft systems work together in support of personnel on the ground. The integration scheme is described in terms of a “Tier” system, and is used by military planners to designate the various individual aircraft elements in an overall usage plan for integrated operations. The Tiers do not refer to specific models of aircraft, but rather roles for which various models and their manufacturers competed. The U.S. Air Force and the U.S.. Marine Corps each has its own tier system, and the two systems are themselves not integrated.

US Air Force tiers
Tier N/A: Small/Micro UAV. Role filled by BATMAV (Wasp Block III). Tier I: Low altitude, long endurance. Role filled by the Gnat 750. Tier II: Medium altitude, long endurance (MALE). Role currently filled by the MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper. Tier II+: High altitude, long endurance conventional UAV (or HALE UAV). Altitude: 60,000 to 65,000 feet (19,800 m), less than 300 knots (560 km/h) airspeed, 3,000-nautical- mile (6,000 km) radius, 24 hour time-on-station capability. Complementary to the Tier III- aircraft. Role currently filled by the RQ-4 Global Hawk. Tier III-: High altitude, long endurance low-observable UAV. Same parameters as, and complementary to, the Tier II+ aircraft. The RQ-3 DarkStar was originally intended to fulfill this role before it was “terminated. ”
US Marine Corps tiers
Tier N/A: Micro UAV. Wasp III fills this role, driven largely by the desire for commonality with the USAF BATMAV. Tier I: Role currently filled by the Dragon Eye but all ongoing and future procurement for the Dragon Eye program is going now to the RQ-11B Raven B. Tier II: Role currently filled by the ScanEagle and, to some extent, the RQ-2 Pioneer. Tier III: For two decades, the role of medium range tactical UAV was filled by the Pioneer UAV. In July 2007, the Marine Corps announced its intention to retire the aging Pioneer fleet and transition to the Shadow Tactical Unmanned Aircraft System by AAI Corporation. The first Marine Shadow systems have already been delivered, and training for their respective Marine Corps units is underway
U.S. Army tiers
Tier I: Small UAV. Role filled by the RQ-11A/B Raven. Tier II: Short Range Tactical UAV. Role filled by the RQ-7A/B Shadow 200. Tier III: Medium Range Tactical UAV. Role currently filled by the RQ-5A / MQ-5A/B Hunter and IGNAT/IGNAT- ER, but transitioning to the Extended Range Multi-Purpose (ERMP) MQ-1C Warrior.
Future Combat Systems (FCS) (U.S. Army) classes
Class I: For small units. Role to be filled by all new UAV with some similarity to Micro Air Vehicle. Class II: For companies. (cancelled.) [3] Class III: For battalions. (cancelled.) [4] Class IV: For brigades. Role to be filled by the RQ-8A/B / MQ-8B Fire Scout.
UAV functions

UAVs perform a wide variety of functions. The majority of these functions are some form of remote sensing; this is central to the reconnaissance role most UAVs fulfill. Less common UAV functions include interaction and transport.

Remote sensing

UAV remote sensing functions include electromagnetic spectrum sensors, biological sensors, and chemical sensors. A UAV's electromagnetic sensors typically include visual spectrum, infrared, or near infrared cameras as well as radar systems. Other electromagnetic wave detectors such as microwave and ultraviolet spectrum sensors may also be used, but are uncommon. Biological sensors are sensors capable of detecting the airborne presence of various microorganisms and other biological factors. Chemical sensors use laser spectroscopy to analyze the concentrations of each element in the air.


UAVs can transport goods using various means based on the configuration of the UAV itself. Most payloads are stored in an internal payload bay somewhere in the airframe. For many helicopter configurations, external payloads can be tethered to the bottom of the airframe. With fixed wing UAVs, payloads can also be attached to the airframe, but aerodynamics of the aircraft with the payload must be assessed. For such situations, payloads are often enclosed in aerodynamic pods for transport.

Scientific research

Unmanned aircraft are uniquely capable of penetrating areas which may be too dangerous for piloted craft. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began utilizing the Aerosonde unmanned aircraft system in 2006 as a hurricane hunter. AAI Corporation subsidiary Aerosonde Pty Ltd. of Victoria (Australia), designs and manufactures the 35-pound system, which can fly into a hurricane and communicate near-real-time data directly to the National Hurricane Center in Florida. Beyond the standard barometric pressure and temperature data typically culled from manned hurricane hunters, the Aerosonde system provides measurements far closer to the water